Even since India achieved Independence, the Nation Plunged into a new era of Planned industrialisation. In order  to bridge up the gap of more than 200 years of stagnation the country had resorted to the application of one of the  most effective tools  of economic progress i.e. industrial development  through  Five Year Plans, But the industrial  development did not come by itself, the magnitude of  other Socioeconomic problems have to be  solved before tangible results are achieved . The biggest of these problems was the problems of Human Resource Development, the qualitative and quantitative aspects  of the persons engaged in production process. It is much easier  to build Steel Plants, construct Dams and Bridges and manufacture Ships and Aeroplane than to develop the human beings. Human beings are developed through a long process of education and training which is vital for  suming. Systemically training the manpower is vital for Industrial Development  and Productivity. Keeping in view the fast technological changes that are taking place, it has  become necessary to ensure that training keeps pace with technological developments.

                One of the earliest National Training Scheme started by Directorate General of Employment and Training was the introduction of the craftsmen Training Scheme for training of semi skilled and skilled workers. However, with the changing needs of the Industry the skills developed by the trainees in the Industrial Training Institutes were not sufficient and as such training  on the job through formal  Apprenticeship Training  is the only answer. Keeping this in view the Apprentices Act 1961 was enacted in December 1961. The act was implement with effect from Jaunuary,1963 and provides for the regulation and control of training of apprentices in industry and matters connected therewith, the Apprentices Act 1961 has the following objectives:-

(i)                   To regulate the programme of training of apprentices in industries so as to conform to  the syllabi, period of training etc. prescribed by the Central Apprenticeship Council and

(ii)                  To utilise fully the facilities available in industries for imparting practical training with a view to meet the requirements of skilled workers in the country.

Under the Apprenticeship Training Programme following Categories of Apprentices are coverd:-

(i)                   Trade Apprentices

(ii)                  Graduate Engineering apprentice including sandwich courses students.

(iii)                 Technician apprentices ( for diploma holders in  engineering discipline) including sandwich courses  students.

(iv)                Technician ( vocational) Apprentices for 10+2 vocational stream students.


The implementation at the Apprenticeship Training Programme relating to the training of
trade Apprenticeship  in the Central Sector is monitored by the Ministry of Labour (DGE&T) through six Regional Directorate of Apprenticeship Training located at Calcutta, Chennai, Faridabad, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Mumbai. The implementation in the State  Sector & Private Sector in respect of trade apprentices is monitored by State Apprenticeship Advisers. The duration of the training for trade apprentices varies from 6 months to 4 years depending upon the requirement of the trade. Engagement of the apprentices is normally done twice a year during February/March and August/ September. In 1973 the Apprentices Act 1961 was amended so as to bring within its purview the training of Graduate Engineers and Diploma Holder apprentices. The act was again amended in September, 1986 to include in its purview the students coming out from 10+2 stream of education called the Technician (Vocational) Apprentice. The act was  further amended in 1997 to improve the performance of the scheme qualitatively  and quantitatively by defining the definition of establishments, worker, giving flexibility to industries for engaging the apprentices etc.

The training of Graduate Technician and Technician ( Vocational) apprentices is monitored by Ministry of Human Resource Development , Department of Education through four Regional Training centres located at Calcutta, Chennai, Kanpur & Mumbai. But  the  overall responsibility  for the Apprentices Act rests with the Central Apprenticeship Advisor in the Ministry of Labour.

 Basic Training
In case of fresher engaged as trade Apprentices the training consists of basic training followed by on-the-job or shop floor training according to the syllabus of trade. The courses of basic  training are the same as for Industrial Training Institutes, in case there is a corresponding trade under the Crafts-men  Training Scheme. There are, however other trades also which are not available under the Craftsmen Training  Scheme such as Chemical, Printing and Hotel & Catering trades, basic training in such trades is imparted in Basic Training Centres managed by Central Government or respective State Government or concerned establishments.

                A group of establishment can join together in establishing basic training Centre where basic training to their apprentices can be imparted. Normally basic training is imparted at the nearest Industrial  Training Institute in consultation with  the Principal of that Institute, if facilities are available. The recurring costs( including the cost of stipends) incurred by an employer in connection with basic training imparted to trade  apprentices is to be shared at the rate of 50:50 by the Establishment and appropriate Governments in case the total strength of the employing in an establishments is less than 250. In case of employers employing  more than 250 workers, entire cost of basic training is borne by the employers. They will arrange basic  training in a separate place, with class room facilities, but this should be imparted by trained instructors strictly as per the syllabi and operations prescribed.

 Shop Floor Training  

                This part of the training  is to be given by the employers in their own workshop. Suitable arrangements, such as appointment of instructors, provision of machinery and equipment are to be made to impart shop floor training. Care must be taken to ensure that all the operations pertaining to a particular trade and as listed in the syllabus  are thoroughly learnt by the apprentice so as to make himself independent and competent  in performing his job at later stage in  his working life.

 Related Instructions 

                 As apprentices while  undergoing shop floor training in an establishment a course of theoretical related instructions is provided. The cost of borne by the appropriate  Government at the rate of Rs.30 per trainee per month. All  facilities for imparting training such instructions are provided by the employer.

                 Every employer of the 218 notified industries under Apprenticeship Act is required to engage trade apprentices in  accordance with the ratio of trade apprentices to workers other  than the unskilled workers prescribed for each designated trade as well as the training facilities available for apprenticeship  training in the  designated trade. There are 128 designated trades in which apprenticeship training is imparted  in industrial establishment of Central and State ( See details at Annexure-I) . The persons who have successfully completed institutional training in the appropriate trades or analogous trade with  common course contents tn the institutes affiliated by the National Council of Vocational Training are provided corresponding rebate in the period of Apprenticeship Training in the corresponding trade . The duration  of training  varies from 6 months to 4years for different  designated trades. The minimum age prescribed under the Rules is 14 years and there is no maximum age prescribed 26000 establishments under the public and private sector are  now imparting training to apprentice throughout the country.

 Recruitment and Selection  of Apprentice

                 The responsibility for engagement of apprentices solely  lies with the establishment and concerned establishment may invite list of candidates from any Channel such as, through advertisement, from ITI, employment exchanges.

                Similarly the candidates can also contact the employer, ITI principal, employment exchanges for engagement as apprenticeship . The employers can also take the assistance of nearest Employment Exchange or the Principal of the Industrial  Training Institutes for furnishing them the names of suitable candidates for enrollment as apprentices.

 Apprenticeship Contract

                  The entire training Programme under the apprentices act is controlled under the provisions of apprenticeship contract between the employer and the apprentices. The Apprenticeship contract is registered with concerned Apprenticeship Advisor and is to be referred to the Apprenticeship Adviser whose decision will be binding  on both the parties. 

Novation of  Contracts. 

                In case an establishment is closed, the apprentices of that establishment can be shifted to another establishment by the Apprenticeship Advisers and renewed contract is signed between  new employer and apprenticeship  training undergone by the apprentice with previous employer will be included in the period of apprenticeship to be undertaken with the new employer .


                 During the period of apprenticeship training the Graduate Engineer, Diploma Holders, Trade Apprentices and Technician ( Vocational)  apprentices are paid at the minimum prescribed rates. The current rates of stipends payable by the employers to the apprentices are given below:--

 Trade Apprentices

During the first year of training              Rs. 580  p.m.

During the second year of training         Rs. 670  p.m.

During the third year of training             Rs. 770  p.m.

During the fourth year of training           Rs. 880  p.m.

 Graduate and Technician Apprentices

(a) Engineering graduate                        Rs. 1400 p.m.  

                                                             (for post institutional Training)

(b)Sandwich course students from           
     degree institution

Diploma  Holders                                   Rs. 1000 p.m.

                                                             (for post institutional Training)

(d) Sandwich course students from
      Diploma Institutions.

For   Technician  ( Vocational ) Trade for 10+2
 Vocational stream                                            Rs. 770 p.m.

                 The stipends of the Graduate Engineers and Diploma Holders are shared equally between the Ministry of Education and the concerned employers. The stipend of all categories of apprentices is generally revised after every two years.

 Trade Test Certificate 

                At the end of the training period every trade apprentices is required to appear in an All India Trade Test for apprentices conducted by the National Council for Vocational Training   in the prescribed subject alongwith practical test. These  tests are  conducted  twice a year. I.e. in April and October. The apprentices who successfully pass this trade test are  awarded a certificate by the National Council for Vocational Training which is a recognised certificate   for the purpose of employment under the Government:-

                In orders to promote a healthy competition among the apprentices as well as establishment  an All India  Apprentices Skill Competition in 11 trades  namely  ___ Fitter, Machinist , Turner, Welder, Mechanic  ( Motor Vechile), Electronic, Tool & Diameker, Electronics Mech., D/ Man Mech., Mill Wright/ Mech. Maintenance, Instrument Mech. Is held after every All India Trade Test. The apprentices securing the highest qualifying marks at the All  India level is awarded a cash prize of Rs. 10000 and a Merit Certificate. The establishment whose apprentices  secure the highest marks in all 11 trades put  altogether in a particular year is awarded a Running trophy and a certificate of Honorable Mention from  the President of India. The All India Skill competition are preceded by Regional Competitions in all the above trades and a Merit Certificate  is awarded to the best establishment as well as to the best apprentices in  each trade at the Regional level also.

 Obligation of Employees

                Under the Apprentices Act, 1961 the employers have the following obligations:-

 (i)                   To provide the apprentices with training in their  trades in accordance with the provisions of this act and the rules framed there under.

(ii)                  If any employer is not himself qualified in the trade he should ensure that persons possessing the prescribed qualification is placed incharge of the training of the apprentices.

(iii)                 An employer is required to carry out all his obligations under the contract of Apprentices training.

(iv)                An employer is required to engage certain number of apprentices as fixed by the concerned Apprentices Adviser and  he must ensure that the quota expected of him is filled up without any delay.

(v)                 There is a reservation of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled  Tribes and the employer must  ensure that the reservations if applicable to his establishment, must be adhered to.

In the case of Graduate and Technician Apprentices, 88 subject fields in Engineering and Technology have specified. The period of training for Graduate Technician and Technician ( Vocational) Apprentices is one year. 60 subject fields have been specified for the benefit to pass out students from 10+2  vocational stream for training in Industry as Technician ( Vocational ) Apprentices. The Training for Graduate, Technician and Technician ( Vocational ) apprentices is organised in accordance with the training  programme approved by the Directorate of Regional Board of Apprenticeship Training under Ministry of Human Resources Development.  


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